Monday, November 7, 2016


In our study of the book of Acts we have now come to the point where the church is almost on the verge of being thrust out of  Jerusalem by the Holy Spirit (remembering  Jesus' words in Acts 1:8).
 But how did this happen?
The next 6 chapters (i.e. from Acts 6:8 - 12:24) explain how the foundations of the mission to the gentiles   were  laid. 5 key people are at the forefront of what is happening in these 6 chapters:
(i)                 Stephen (6:8 - 8:3) 
(ii)               Philip  (8:4 - 40)
(iii)             Paul (9:1 - 31)
(iv)              Peter and
(v)                Cornelius (9:32 - 12:24)

These 5 men made an indispensable contribution to the global expansion of the church. Today we begin  with  Stephen, whose story is recorded for us in the portion we have just read.

A portrait of Stephen:
We first meet  him in the first 7 verses of Acts 6 - "the dispute of the widows" , which threatened to unsettle the unity and the witness of the early church. With prayer and wisdom the early church appointed 7 godly men to oversee the diaconal/ benevolence/ social needs ministry of the church. Stephen (whose name means "crown") was one of them.  He is described to us  in Acts 6:3 as "full of the Spirit and of wisdom" and in  Acts 6:8 "full of  grace and power… doing great wonders and  signs among the people."
He was  the first Christian to wear the crown of the martyr in the history of the church.

A Christ-centered man :
What really strikes us as we see him in action in life and in his dying moments, is His absolute Christ - centeredness. His testimony in life and in death was focused on Jesus. His life showed the clearness, authority and influence of Jesus.

We are told that opposition arose from "members of the synagogue of the freedmen" (6:9) Also mentioned are Jews from Cyrene, Alexandria as well as the provinces of Cilicia and Asia. The "freedmen" (libertinoi) were probably freed slaves and their descendants. The synagogue of these "freedmen" seemed to have made up from Jews of these various  parts of the world who were now living in Jerusalem.  They began to argue with Stephen, but they could not stand up against his wisdom, or the Spirit by which he spoke. (6:10)

This  then became  a smear campaign with false witnesses  involved (6:11), and so they dragged him before the ruling council (Sanhedrin),producing false witnesses. All this sounds very similar to what happened to Jesus.
We are  very familiar  with  dirty campaigns in our day . The  present  Donald Trump versus  Hillary Clinton  campaign has been reduced from  a political campaign to a personal smear campaign.

In the case of Stephen  it is somewhat different.  He, like  the Lord  Jesus  has a real case  lined up against the  Jews  and their representative  counsel- the Sanhedrin.  But when the Jews hear  Stephen’s irrefutable logic  they turn it into a smear campaign.
John Stott  observes that the same order of events has often been repeated. At first there is a theological debate. When this fails, people start a personal campaign of lies. Finally they resort to legal action in an attempt to rid themselves of  their  adversary by force .[1]

From there the story is divided into three parts:
(i)                 The accusation made against Stephen (6:13 - 15)
(ii)               The defence made by Stephen (7:1-53)
(iii)             The  sentence carried out against Stephen /death by stoning (7:54-60)

1.      THE ACCUSATION: 6:13 - 15

…basically boils down to this: Their claim was that  Stephen had blasphemed against Moses (the law) and against God  and the  temple (6:13,14).This is an extremely serious charge, for nothing was more sacred to the Jews than the law of God and their temple. The law was God's word, and the temple was the manifestation  of  God's presence.
In what sense did Stephen speak against the temple and the law? (Read  v. 14)
The facts which they present against Stephen are not  actually wrong, for this is what Jesus had indeed  said  in John 2:19, 20  (see also  Mark  14:58 and 15:29).

In the first place Jesus had dared to speak of Himself as God's new temple, replacing the old.
In Matt 12:6 he said : "I tell you, that One greater than the temple is here."  (In that same context he also proclaimed Himself as Lord of the Sabbath! Matt 12:8)
In the second place, Stephen was quoting what Jesus had said w.r.t  the law. In Matt 5:17  Jesus claimed   that He was in fact the end of the law  and that He had come  had come to  fulfill the law.
What Stephen thus said  to the Jews was correct!  It was  based on what Jesus had taught, and Jesus had clearly claimed that the temple and the law would be superseded and completed  in Himself!
What was the problem then?
Stephen, following Pentecost  and filled with  the illumination of the Holy Spirit  saw all this very clearly.  He had seen Jesus  for who He is!  But, these particular Jews, like the Jews that  condemned Christ   could  not see in Him anything but a threat  to their religion. They had understood that  He  was saying that He was greater  than their law and their temple, but they could not see that He was right!
Now if we accept that Christ is God, then this is purely logical that He should be  the true fulfillment of everything! He is their Creator. The law and the temple  testify to Him. They serve Him, and  they are therefore subject to Him!
But these Jews failed to recognize Christ and therefore  they would  also  not recognzse His spokesman. For  this reason they rejected Stephen!

They  were so absorbed with the law and the temple -  that they could not see the greater  reality before  them, namely that He who created the law and  He  who gave the design for the temple was now here! In truth, all they needed to read was their own Old Testament to see  the persistent testimony of the law and the prophets  concerning the rotten status  of Israel  before God. The prophets  had  said time and again to Israel that their worship was vain and empty and that it lacked  true reverence for God  -  
See for instance  Jeremiah 7: 1  - 15!

Stephen  was preaching Christ, the Messiah  who was to come,  and he proclaimed Christ  as the One in whom all,  that the O.T. foretold,  is fulfilled, including the temple and the law.

It is highly significant then  that at this point (6:15), namely  at the height of their accusations and charges  against Stephen, they  look at  him,  and they see a radiant face - like that of an angel!This is exactly what had happened to Moses' face when he came down from Mt Sinai with the law! (see Ex.  34:29ff).

In this way God was showing that both, Moses ministry of  receiving and giving of  the law, and Stephen's  receiving  and interpretation of it had  the  approval of  God. Indeed,  we must note  that God's blessing on Stephen is evident throughout his recorded  ministry i.e. the grace and power in 6:8,  his wisdom in 6:10 and his shining face in  6:15  were proof of this  fact.

Oh, but there  are none as blind as those that will not see. Have you seen Jesus  for who He is ?

 2.      THE DEFENCE: 7:1-53

This is a lengthy defence. It is  actually a lecture in OT  history  beginning with Abraham  and  ending  with an accusing charge  in 7:51-53 in which he accuses the Sanhedrin that  they were stiff necked and  stubborn , always  resisting the Holy Spirit.  

So, let me try to sum it up in a nutshell. Remember the charge is that he blasphemes against the temple and the law. Note how he defends himself:

(i)                w.r.t  the temple: the Jews thought that the temple was associated with the presence of God. That is not entirely untrue, as many passages  (e.g. Ps. 27:4 etc) indicate. However in doing so they went far further - and absolutely bound God to His temple i.e.  they were saying where the temple is , God is!  It is interesting to see how Stephen proceeds to demolish that sort of thinking. He uses prominent O.T. figures [Abraham , Isaac ,Jacob ,Joseph, Moses (in particular), David and Solomon]. The connecting feature is that  in none of these epochs was God's presence limited to any particular place. The God of the O.T. was the God on the move, who was always calling His people to move out into His purposes and always accompanying and directing them as they went. Abraham had no temple. Joseph had no temple. Moses had a moving tabernacle (portable temple). David had a tabernacle (and often not - whilst he was fleeing). Solomon eventually built the temple, but was quick to point out ) that no one could build a house for God, for no one and no building  could contain the infinite God of the Universe (see 7:48,49). The holy place is where God is. And God is where His chosen people are! God does not dwell in this building.  He dwells with his living stones! If they happen to be in the building - good and well!  Do you see that the O.T. does not contradict the N.T.?  Solomon thus had it right when  he said: "The most High does not live in houses made by men." He lives in the hearts of His redeemed children. His dwelling place is with them. For the N.T. Christian this means that he/she should be where Christ's body is, for Christ is the head of the church! And He is where His body is!  I trust that you understand this, and that it is for this reason that I encourage you to be in fellowship with Christ and His body as often as is possible. So Stephen showed that contrary to their interpretation (God is in His temple alone), Stephen showed that God is with His people., If God's people happened to be  obedient to Him and worshiped Him in the temple, He would be there  - naturally.  Ezekiel foresees in Chapter 10 the glory of God departing from the temple. 

(ii)             W.r.t the law:  It is ironic that those who charged Jesus and Stephen with blaspheming against the law, where far more guilty of it. Stephen uses arguments from Israel's history to prove this: In the first place they failed to recognize  Moses as the heaven sent deliverer (7:25).In the second place they pushed Moses aside (7:27). In the third place they rejected his leadership (7:35). In the fourth place, in the desert they refused to obey him; instead in their hearts they turned back to Egypt, and so became idolaters (7:39ff).  It was the same with the prophets. Now they praise them, but then they killed them!

(iii)             This is where the accused now becomes the accuser : see  7:51 - 53
·    Uncircumcised hearts and ears - expression common to Moses and the prophets [2], which implied that they were still heathen at heart and deaf to the truth.
·         "you are just like your fathers" i.e. in their willful rejection of God's word
·         "you always resist the Holy Spirit"
·         "was there ever a prophet your fathers did not persecute?" In fact they were worse - because they killed God's Son , the righteous One!
·         In effect they did not obey the law!

(iv)             The heart of the matter is that they failed to see the Christ (the promised Messiah) whom Stephen proclaimed!


Stephen's speech before the Sanhedrin was full of Christ, and this continued into his death. Read 8:55!
See the Sanhedrin's response in 7:57 :  they covered their ears, yelling at their top of their voices, suppressing their consciences. You cannot think objectively when you close your ears or raise your voice, and thus in a moment of madness fueled by a mob mentality,  they stoned Stephen.
Note in 7:59 the similarity of Stephen's prayer to the Lord's prayer on the cross. Both prayed for forgiveness of their executioners and committed their spirits into God's  hands. Saul was there, giving approval to his death (8:1)

The most direct consequence of Stephen's death was that  the  church was persecuted and scattered  throughout Judea and Samaria (8:1 cf Acts 1:8) and thus the mission to the gentiles began. The significance of Stephen's death can never be over estimated!
The church was forced out of Jerusalem , and so was the gospel. It was carried to gentile territories .  Saul  who saw this (and must have observed the way in which Stephen died) is soon going to be converted to become the great apostle to the gentiles.
So we see that the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church!
Some would say : how gruesome! How unnecessary!  However, don't worry about Stephen. He is with the Lord Jesus. Worry about those hard hearts who will have to stand  before the great throne of Judgement. Be concerned for men and women who blaspheme the Name of Christ, and who have no love or concern for Him. 
It is true that the church must have been shocked, but with the benefit of hindsight we can now appreciate God's providence in promoting the church's mission. This sort of history has repeated itself again and again in the life of the church - Europe , America, Asia and Africa  - the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church , and as we have said - don't be concerned about the martyrs ; do not even be concerned about your own life , if you are a Christian. Maybe some of us will have to die for the sake of the gospel, so that unbelieving men and women will hear! Be concerned about the unbelieving world. Pray , witness , go and tell! Leave the consequence with God! 
Generally Christians are slow to move out with the Gospel. What will God have to do to get us involved and active in telling the gospel to the unsaved?

[1] John Stott :  The message of Acts , p. 127 ( BST series IVP)
[2] E.g. Lev 26:41 ;Dt 10:16 ; 30:6 ; Jer 6:10 ;9:26 ; Ez 44:7

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